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The bladder is a hollow organ responsible for storing and expelling urine from the body. The size of the bladder varies with age, body weight, and race. Abnormal changes in bladder size can affect the body's secretory function.
1. Bladder Anatomy
The bladder is a hollow organ responsible for storing urine from two ureters leading down from the renal pelvis. When the bladder is empty, it is usually located in the anterior part of the iliac fossa and protected anteriorly by the pubic bone. Behind the bladder are the genitals (in women) and the rectum. When the bladder is filled with urine, it is spherical in shape and may protrude into the abdominal cavity.
In children, the bladder is located in the abdomen because the pelvic floor structure in the baby is still small in size.
The bladder has a pyramidal shape with three bases and one apex:
The upper surface of the bladder is covered by the peritoneum, convex and convex when the bladder is distended and concave when the bladder is empty. Below, the anterolateral sides of the bladder rest on their own against the pelvic diaphragm. The posterior basal surface has a divided peritoneum partially covering the upper part. The inferior and superior surfaces meet at the top of the bladder and continue with the medial umbilical ligament, which suspends the bladder to the navel.
2. Physiological function of the bladder
The two functions of the bladder are to store and expel urine. With development and maturity, from an early age, we all gain the ability to regulate day and night.
During the day, urination occurs when the muscles contract in sync with the bladder and relax the sphincters in the bladder neck and pelvic floor muscles (usually in response to a feeling of bladder fullness). This allows the free flow of urine until the bladder is empty. At night, when the bladder is fully stocked and concentrated with urine, we often sleep through the night without needing to urinate, but are also likely to wake up to urinate when the bladder feels full.
3. Bladder size according to age.
Anatomically, functional bladder capacity increases with age from childhood [(age + 2) × 30ml] to adulthood (300-400 ml). In children, the bladder is usually located high and wades into the abdomen. We can estimate bladder size based on age using the formula [(age + 2) × 30 ml].
As children grow older, the bladder capacity in children will gradually increase
|Trẻ sơ sinh: 30 - 60 ml||45 ± 15 ml|
|Trẻ bú mẹ: 60 - 100 ml||80 ± 20 ml|
|Trẻ 5 tuổi: 100 - 200 ml||150 ± 50 ml|
|Trẻ 10 tuổi: 150 - 350 ml||250 ± 100 ml|
|Trẻ 15 tuổi: 200 - 400 ml||300 ± 100 ml|
Bladder capacity increases with age in children. Normal expected bladder capacity until age 12 is calculated as (age + 1) x 30mL (with 400mL expected for those over 12 years). The normal daytime mean bladder volume is usually 65–150% of the expected bladder capacity. Normally, humans produce less urine at night in response to changes in the circadian cycle in the amount of arginine vasopressin secreted by the pituitary gland.
The size of the bladder in an adult ranges from about 250 - 350 ml. In men, a bladder capacity of about 200-300 ml will create a feeling of needing to urinate while in women from 250 to 350 will create this feeling. However, depending on the size of the adult, the bladder has different sizes. The maximum capacity that the bladder can hold ranges from 900 to 1500 ml.
4. Effects of bladder size on health.
4.1. Large bladder. An enlarged bladder is a bladder that becomes larger than normal. Normally, the bladder walls become thicker and then grow as a result of them being over-dilated. This condition is sometimes referred to as an enlarged bladder by medical professionals. An enlarged bladder may be present at birth or may result from an obstruction of the bladder, kidney, or anastomotic ureter. An enlarged bladder has symptoms that can be similar to those of other conditions. If you have any of the following symptoms, your doctor will likely order an ultrasound to determine the cause of your symptoms.
Difficulty urinating A constant feeling that your bladder is full A slow stream of urine Abdominal pain Urinary incontinence Waking up at night to urinate Other symptoms may appear depending on the cause of the bladder big. These may include pelvic pain and bloody urine.
An enlarged bladder is a relatively common condition. There are many possible causes. One of the most common causes is a blockage of the urinary system. This can happen in the ureter that connects the kidney to the bladder or in the urethra that carries urine from the bladder out of the body. When there is a blockage, the bladder has to work harder to get the urine out through the blockage. This can lead to a loss of elasticity in the bladder wall. Typical obstructions are kidney stones and tumors. Timely recognition of these conditions can prevent an enlarged bladder.
Some people have trouble urinating. They produce a large amount of urine, but they never empty the urine. This prevents the bladder from returning to its normal size and causes it to stretch.
Some babies are born with an enlarged bladder, although they may not show symptoms until they are older. If an enlarged bladder is detected in a child but they are not suffering any negative consequences, simply monitoring them closely is an appropriate course of action.
People who are both obese and have diabetes may be prone to an enlarged bladder.
4.2. Small bladder Small bladder syndrome is known as overactive bladder. Overactive bladder is a condition that causes a sudden, involuntary contraction of the bladder muscle wall, resulting in a restless need to urinate. Often, you'll feel the urge to go even if you don't drink a lot of fluids.
People with overactive bladder may have to go to the bathroom frequently day and night, even if there is only a small amount of urine in the bladder.
Many people call an overactive bladder a small bladder, but anatomically this may not be accurate. However, it can function as a small bladder, meaning you can't hold as much urine. When the bladder muscle is overworked, it can lead to the need for frequent movement. For this reason, the terms 'small bladder' and 'overactive bladder' are often used interchangeably to describe the same condition.
Symptoms of overactive bladder include:
A sudden, urgent need to urinate Urinating incontinence, where urine leaks before you reach the toilet Increase trips to the loo Waking up several times a night to go to the bathroom
The exact cause of an overactive bladder is unknown, but there are several factors that contribute to its symptoms, including:
Conditions that affect the nervous system, like stroke , dementia and Parkinson's disease. Nerve damage or injury from surgery or an accident, such as a car accident. Bladder conditions, including bladder stones, bladder cancer, or urinary tract infections.
5. The effects of age on bladder function.
Changes in the bladder and pelvic floor muscles in adults with aging also include decreased bladder sensation, decreased contractility during bowel movements, decreased muscle tone in the pelvic floor muscles, and increased residual volume. Other physical changes include increased upregulation of purinergic receptors with increased rates of detrusor overactivity and increased urethral acetylcholine release, both of which can contribute to lower urinary tract symptoms. Lower Urinary Tract symptoms – LUTS). The incidence of LUTS increases with age. Although there are age-related changes to the bladder and its function, those effects are minimal and easily offset by changes in bladder habits. troubling or severe symptoms of an unusual bladder; Therefore, the erroneous belief that urinary incontinence is a natural, inevitable consequence of the aging process should be dispelled.
Knowledge of the physical and functional aspects of the bladder can help promote bladder health, as well as the outcome of treatment for bladder conditions. For example, pelvic floor muscle exercises (also known as Kegel exercises) can prevent and treat mild stress incontinence. Many people with urinary incontinence who have been successfully treated with a combination of behavioral interventions plus antimuscarinic medication after previous failure of antimuscarinic therapy cited information provided to them about bladder muscle. and pelvic floor was an important contributing factor to their treatment satisfaction. It is expected that increasing knowledge about changes in bladder health/function over time will help adults identify and seek treatment for bladder conditions.
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Reference source: healthline.com
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