Pollution is the main problem threatening the ecosystem, which the contamination of water by emerging pollutants is the main problem of the aquatic system [1,2]. Generally, these chemical compounds, such as dyes, pharmaceuticals, endocrine disruptors, pesticides, surfactants and personal care products, are difficult to eliminate in wastewater facilities because of their persistent and non-biodegradable character . Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the emerging contaminants classified as endocrine disruptors . It has been used to produce polycarbonates, dyes, epoxy resins and other plastics and has also been used as an antioxidant, flame retardant and pesticide (fungicide) . Although the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines a pesticide as any chemical substance used to inhibit, destroy, suppress or mitigate any pest , the use of pesticides in modern agricultural practices to improve yields and meet food needs has become a matter of social responsibility . These chemical substances kill specific target microorganisms. Moreover, they also affect the environmental medium, including surface and groundwater, soil, and atmosphere , polluting the natural ecosystem. Furthermore, pesticides may lead to several diseases such as cancer, neurological disorders, sterility and oxidative stress [9,10].
For this reason, the adsorption of BPA elements from aqueous media has attracted extensive interest. Various physical and chemical treatments, such as advanced oxidation process, photodegradation, filtration, coagulation, flocculation and adsorption, as well as biological treatments, such as activated sludge process and hygienic remediation, have been applied to remove these toxic substances from the aquatic system [11,12]. However, some limitations in applying these technologies bring the adsorption method for important purposes: simple, effective, and low cost . In the last decade, many biomaterials such as clay, chitosan, date stone, and biochar have been used as adsorbents to eliminate pesticides from wastewater [14,15].
To reduce the technologies' cost, advanced research has been carried out to find low-cost materials with high adsorption performance. Due to its biocompatibility and availability, hydroxyapatite (HAP) is among the most widely used biomaterials as effective adsorbents to eliminate contaminants from water [16,17]. Moreover, HAP is a biocrystal constituted from phosphorus, hydrogen and calcium, under a chemical formula of Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, a principal mineral material found in the bones of animals. According to the literature, various methods were applied for hydroxyapatite (HAP) synthesis , including wet chemical precipitation at low temperature , sol-gel method , emulsion and microemulsion , hydrothermal processes , pyrolysis and calcination . Its extraction was from various biomaterials such as fish scales , eggshells , animal bones , Shells , etc. Nevertheless, these methods have disadvantages such as long reaction time, high chemical products consumption and impurities generation.
The treatment of BPA pesticides by membrane filtration , reverse osmosis , photocatalysis , advanced oxidation processes and adsorption [31,32] has been studied extensively. Adsorption is chosen because it is an efficient, fast and less expensive method compared to other processes .
This recent study aims to elaborate on natural HAP bioceramics from camel bone and fish scales in the scope of natural resources valorization, targeting a green circular economy. The reason for choosing these biomaterials is their high availability as a waste product. In addition, HAP is one of the excellent biosorbents because of its ion exchange capacity and reactive surface.
In this context, the present paper focuses on the extraction of hydroxyapatite from camel bone meal (CBM) and fish scales (FS) by an alkaline heat treatment process for use as a cost-effective biosorbent for removing the bisphenol A (BPA) pesticide from wastewater. First, the prepared biosorbents were characterized using SEM, EDS, FTIR, BET, TGA, DSC, and PZC. Then, a series of important parameters were studied, such as adsorbent dosage, pH effect, pesticide concentration, contact time, and temperature affecting the adsorption process. Finally, the adsorption mechanisms optimization of BPA on FS and CBM materials was performed using the response surface methodology coupled with the Box Behnken design (RSM-BBD).
Materials and chemical reagents
All chemical products used in this study were of analytical grade, Bisphenol A (C15H16O2), hydroxide sodium (NaOH), hydrochloric acid (HCl) and ethanol (CH3CH2OH) were provided from Sigma Aldrich Company-Casablanca (Morocco). Bisphenol A was dissolved in distilled water at a concentration of 100mg/L as stock solutions.
Preparation of adsorbents
In this work, fish scales and camel bone were sourced from the local market. Firstly, the collected biomaterials were rinsed with tap water and then distilled water to eliminate
The surface chemical functions present on the FS and CBM adsorbents are another essential aspect in determining the adsorption performance of these biomaterials. The FTIR spectra of FS and CBM are shown in Fig. 1. The typical bands of the HAP assigned to the hydroxyl and phosphate groups can be detected. Broadband characteristic of the water molecule adsorbed on the material surface is located at 3500 and 3290cm−1 for FS and CBM, respectively. The peaks at 2922 and 2852cm−1 in the FTIR
This recent research study demonstrated the viability of converting camel bone biowaste and fish scales into porous hydroxyapatite as an efficient adsorbent. For this purpose, hydroxyapatite was well developed from fish scales (FS) and camel bone meal (CBM) using the alkaline heat treatment method, as low coast technique of preparation. Hydroxyapatite has a high adsorption efficiency of emerging organic contaminants such as endocrine disruptors. This recent study used the hydroxyapatite
Declaration of competing interest
The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.
A novel hydrogel beads based copper-doped Cerastoderma edule [emailprotected] biocomposite for highly fungicide sorption from aqueous medium
Citation Excerpt :See AlsoÉrosion des sols : pourquoi cela se produit et ce que nous pouvons y faire - Project Learning TreeBWFSO: Hybrid Black-widow and Fish swarm optimization Algorithm for resource allocation and task scheduling in cloud computingPredicting bend-induced heterogeneity in sediment microbial communities by integrating bacteria-based index of biotic integrity and supervised learning algorithmsAn analysis of the breakdown of paper products (toilet paper, tissues and tampons) in natural environments, Tasmania, Australia
A wide range of biomaterials was successfully used to absorb pesticides from wastewater (Jain et al., 2021). Including agricultural wastes (Aziz et al., 2021b), biomass (Komal et al., 2020), clays (Bueno et al., 2021), biochar (Brito et al., 2020), shrimp shells (Sabbagh et al., 2021), eggshells (Sen et al., 2021), camel bone (Aziz et al., 2022) etc. The adsorption process can be carried out in batch or continuous mode.
The engineering of a novel biocomposite based on Cerastoderma edule shells doped with copper and alginate (Ce–[emailprotected]) forming hydrogel beads was used for batch and dynamic adsorption thiabendazole (TBZ) pesticide from water. The prepared biosorbent was analyzed by various characterization techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis (BET), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), thermogravimetric and differential analysis (TGA-DTA). The results of the TBZ batch biosorption by Ce–[emailprotected] composite showed that the Langmuir model was the most adequate to describe the adsorption process, with a maximum adsorption capacity value of 21.98mg/g. Moreover, the adsorption kinetics were adjusted by the pseudo-second-order model. The optimal conditions determined by the RSM approach coupled with the CCD design were 100ppm of initial TBZ concentration, a Ce–[emailprotected] beads dose of 6g/L and a contact time of 180min for maximum removal of 83.42%. On the other hand, the TBZ sorption on a fixed bed of Ce–[emailprotected] beads was effective at high column height, low effluent flow and low solution concentration. The Thomas model was best fitted to the kinetic data. This study shows the possibility of using this new hybrid biocomposite in the industrial sector to treat large effluent volumes.
Enhancement of bisphenol a removal from wastewater via the covalent functionalization of graphene oxide with short amine molecules
2022, Case Studies in Chemical and Environmental Engineering
Citation Excerpt :
In the microbial treatment, BPA is utilized by microorganisms as a carbon source while in the enzymatic treatment, enzymes (e.g. peroxidases and laccases) act as biocatalysts and transform BPA into a polymeric component that might be removed from the treated wastewater via filtration or centrifugation . In physical treatment, distillation , extraction, membrane-based separation , or/and adsorption  can be utilized to physically separate BPA from the contaminated waters. Although each of the above-mentioned processes has its own merits and limitations, the adsorption process is one of the most attractive methods due to its simplicity, flexibility, and potentially cost-effectiveness.
Water pollution is a serious environmental problem worldwide. This problem is augmented by the shortages in fresh water supplies in several parts of the world. Thus, the effective treatment and reuse of polluted water is an inevitable necessity. One of the highly toxic water pollutants with potentially mutagenic and carcinogenic effects is bisphenol A (BPA). Accordingly, the adsorptive removal of BPA from wastewater samples using novel graphene-based materials has been investigated in this study. The results showed the ineffectiveness of the unmodified graphene oxide (GO) in removing BPA from the wastewater samples. The functionalization of GO with short organic amines (i.e., hexamethylenetetramine (HTMA), diethylenetriamine (DETA), and diethylamine (DEA)) boosted the BPA removal by several folds relative to GO and hydrazine-reduced GO. Additionally, the amine structure affected the performance of the amine-modified GO adsorbents. The most effective adsorbent was found to be the one modified with DEA (GO-DEA) followed by GO-DETA. The maximum adsorption capacity () of BPA on GO-DETA and GO-DEA were 258.6 and 334.4 mg/g respectively, relative to 16.2 and 87.0 mg/g in the case of the unmodified GO and the hydrazine-reduced GO (i.e., rGO), respectively. The results of the adsorption kinetics revealed that BPA adsorption on GO-DETA is much faster than its adsorption on GO-DEA. The adsorption kinetics for both adsorbents were best fitted using the Avrami model with adsorption rate constant of 0.0149 (GO-DETA) and 0.0033 min−0.47 (GO-DEA). Although variations in BPA adsorption capacity were observed with changing the pH of the wastewater, the lowest BPA adsorption was encountered at pH 10 for all the graphene-based materials synthesized in this study. The characterization of the synthesized adsorbents revealed that BPA adsorption is not correlated with the surface area/porosity of the adsorbents. It is also not correlated with the degree of GO deoxygenation or nitrogen content alone. The most plausible adsorption mechanisms are π−π stacking interaction and hydrogen bonding. The findings reported in this study reveal the potential of GO functionalization with short organic amines in significantly boosting the adsorptive removal of phenolic pollutants from wastewater.
Phenolic compounds removal in table olive processing wastewater by column adsorption: conditions’ optimization
2023, Environmental Science and Pollution Research
Microwave dielectric properties and thermal conductivities of low-temperature sintered (Na1-xKx)2MoO4 (x ≤ 0.2) ceramics
Ceramics International, Volume 48, Issue 11, 2022, pp. 15282-15292
The Mo-based glass-free spinel-type structure of the (Na1-xKx)2MoO4 (x=0.0, 0.1, and 0.2) ceramic series was prepared using the traditional solid-state method at the low sintering temperature (<650°C). The microwave dielectric properties of the (Na1-xKx)2MoO4 series were determined in terms of phase compositions, crystal structure (via XRD), and microstructure analysis (via FE-SEM and EDS). The results revealed that the double-phase (cubic and orthorhombic) formation plays a significant role in the entire (Na1-xKx)2MoO4 series. It exhibits excellent dielectric properties: dielectric constant εr=4 (1GHz)/3.77 (15GHz), tangent loss tanδ=8.3×10−2 (1GHz)/7×10−3 (15GHz; Q×f=2143GHz), temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF) τf=−6.45ppm/°C, and room temperature thermal conductivity (κ)=1.76W/(m.K) for x=0.1at a sintering temperature of 575°C. These make the (Na1-xKx)2MoO4 ceramic series a potential candidate for low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) substrate applications (as used in antennas) for high-speed data communications.
Breakdown field enhancement and energy storage performance in four-layered Aurivillius films
Ceramics International, Volume 48, Issue 11, 2022, pp. 15780-15784
In dielectric capacitors, ferroelectric thin films with slim polarisation electric (P-E) hysteresis loops, which are mainly characterised by small residual polarisation (Pr) and large saturation polarisation (Ps) are expected to obtain high recoverable energy density (Ur) and efficiency (η). However, a lower breakdown in ferroelectric thin films usually impedes this result. Here, through the co-doping of La3+ and Pr3+ ions, a larger Ur of 54.27J/cm3 and high η of 85.6% were obtained in four-layered Aurivillius phase ferroelectric thin films capacitors due to the enhanced breakdown electric field. The doped films annealed at relatively low temperatures showed similar energy storage properties compared with those of the prototype and higher energy storage efficiency compared with that of higher annealing films. In addition, the obtained thin film shows excellent energy storage properties in a wide frequency range, fatigue durability and good thermal stability. These results indicated that four-layered Aurivillius films are promising candidate materials for dielectric energy storage capacitors. The co-doping of double ions was an effective way to improve energy storage performance.
Hydroxycarbonate apatite formation and 5-fluorouracil delivery by strontium containing mesoporous bioactive glass nanoparticles
Ceramics International, Volume 48, Issue 11, 2022, pp. 15862-15867
Sol-gel method was employed for the preparation of strontium-doped mesoporous bioactive glass nanoparticles (Sr-MBG NPs). These NPs have the size of 50±5nm, a pore size of 8.2nm, and a surface area of 379m2/g. Biocompatibility was confirmed by MTT and tissue histopathology in Balb/c mice. 5-Fluorouracil (5-Fu) was loaded to obtain Fu-Sr-MBG NPs which posed substantial inhibitory effects on the viability of the cancer cells (AGS). The amount of released drug was controlled by changing the pH of release medium. Formation of hydroxycarbonate apatite (HCA) was evaluated in simulated body fluid (SBF) and confirmed by XRD and FTIR. Thus a multipurpose nano-biomaterial was prepared and screened.
Up-conversion luminescence and temperature-sensing properties of Li+, K+ doped Na2Zn3Si2O8: Er3+ phosphors
Ceramics International, Volume 48, Issue 11, 2022, pp. 15755-15761
In this work we detail the preparation of new luminescent Li+ and K+ doped Na2Zn3Si2O8: Er3+ up-conversion phosphors using the high-temperature solid-phase method. We investigate the phosphors phase structure, elemental distribution, up-conversion luminescence characteristics and temperature sensing properties. Our fabricated samples were found to be homogeneous and when excited using 980nm light, they emitted wavelengths in the green and red visible wavelength bands, which correspond to two major emission bands of Er3+. Doping with Li+ and K+ increased the luminescence intensity of the Na2Zn3Si2O8: Er3+ phosphor at 661nm by 36 and 21 times respectively. The highest relative temperature sensitivity (Sa) of the fabricated phosphor reached a value of 19.69% K−1 and the highest absolute temperature sensitivity (Sr) reached 1.20% K−1. These values are superior to other materials which utilize up-conversion by Er3+ ions as a tool for temperature sensing. We anticipate that these new phosphors will find significant application as components in optical temperature measurement systems.
Microstructure and mechanical properties of (Ti,W)C cermets prepared by ultrafast spark plasma sintering
Ceramics International, Volume 48, Issue 11, 2022, pp. 15613-15621
To explore the impact of the sintering rate on the microstructure and mechanical properties of cermets, the preparation of (Ti,W)C cermets by ultrafast sintering via spark plasma sintering (SPS) is reported. Compared with a slow heating rate, the electric field produced by an ultrafast heating rate enhances the liquid phase mass transfer of the metal binder phase, thus achieving rapid densification of (Ti,W)C cermets and effectively inhibiting abnormal grain growth. However, an excessive heating rate will lead to an “overflow” phenomenon, which reduces the grain growth difficulty and the bonding strength between grains. The results show that when the heating rate is 500°C/min, the liquid phase mass transfer is moderate, the densification degree is the highest and the mechanical properties are excellent. The flexural strength, Vickers hardness and fracture toughness are 1340.90±23.55MPa, 18.42±0.46GPa and 11.96±0.23MPa∙m1/2, respectively.
Multifunctional Gd2O3:Tm3+, Er3+, Nd3+ particles with luminescent and magnetic properties
Ceramics International, Volume 48, Issue 11, 2022, pp. 15832-15838
Development of novel materials with advanced properties is one of the main research directions of chemistry. New substances are not only crucial for many current technological applications but also should satisfy the needs of tomorrow. Industry often requires reliable, economically effective methods that can provide high quality reproducible results. Here we propose an inexpensive synthesis method that is suitable for synthesis of many types of particles. In this work we focused on Gd2O3:Tm3+, Er3+, Nd3+ particles with luminescence and magnetic properties. Based on the analysis of morphology, structural and optical properties of particles prepared by the standard Pechini methods and its variations, we found that the method with K2CO3 as additive yields particles with smaller sizes (down to tens of nm), higher crystallinity, and up to 1.7 times increased luminescence intensity. We also demonstrate that the unique combination of the particles’ characteristics, for example, the intensity ratio of the luminescent bands corresponding to different REI and the mass susceptibility, strongly depends on the composition, synthesis method, and structure. The variety of the combination of the properties makes these particles a promising candidate for safety markers applications.
© 2022 Elsevier Ltd and Techna Group S.r.l. All rights reserved.